Significant yield losses caused by frost in the southern cropping region last year have underlined the importance of the grains industry’s continued investment in research, development and extension to address the issue.
Costing the national grains industry more than an estimated $360 million on average each year, frost remains a funding priority for the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) which is about to embark on new frost-related R,D&E investments, in addition to an existing stable of frost research projects.
Two new projects to commence this year will provide the grains industry with an accurate source of background data to inform future frost research and management decisions, as well as access to wheat and barley frost tolerance data relating to the impact on yield.
A two-year frost situation analysis project will quantify the incidence (severity, timing and frequency) of frost in different agro-ecological zones through historical data analysis and simulation modeling, enabling the grains industry to improve current risk management tools.
A new three-year project to generate frost tolerance data that specifically relates to yield will provide growers and advisers in the southern and western regions with essential information upon which to make varietal selections as part of their overall frost risk management process. This data will be made available through crop variety guides and GRDC’s National Variety Trials (NVT) program.
GRDC Southern Regional Panel chair David Shannon says these new areas of research will complement existing R,D&E initiatives.
“Frost is a major issue that the grains industry continues to grapple with and so it remains a high priority in terms of GRDC investment,” Mr Shannon said.
“Frost is an incredibly difficult constraint to research. Frost events can be unpredictable and their impact can vary depending on the nature of the frost and the stage of crop growth.
“Research indicates that the incidence of frosts across Australia has increased and more frost events are occurring later in the year. This was evident in many parts of the southern cropping region – particularly in southern New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria – last year when frosts in September-October caused yield losses of up to 80 per cent in individual crops.”
Mr Shannon said that while cultural practices such as delayed time of sowing can reduce the risk of frost damage, yield potential losses caused by such frost avoidance strategies can be sizeable.
“It is therefore important that GRDC also encourages and funds significant scientific effort in the area of genetics-based research, because that is where the most gains in combating frost are likely to be made.”
The GRDC has long acknowledged the severe implications of frost, and since 1999 has invested around $13.5 million in more than 60 frost-related projects.
Among these initiatives is the Australian National Frost Program (ANFP) which was established last year by the GRDC, the University of Adelaide and the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (DAFWA). The ANFP has been set up to provide a national frost screening facility and through this, frost sensitivity ratings are being developed for current wheat and barley varieties to assist growers manage the risk of frost.
National frost pre-breeding research is also aiming to develop the capacity to identify and select frost-tolerant barley and wheat germplasm for use in breeding programs to reduce frost sensitivity of commercial varieties.
University of Adelaide researcher Dr Timothy March says research to date has shown that under severe frost (below -4C for wheat and below -6C for barley), all varieties tested are equally susceptible.
“However genetic variation has been identified under milder frosts which induce grain sterility in the range of 10 to 80%. What is not yet well established is if frost-induced sterility is directly correlated to yield loss, and if certain varieties are better able to compensate through other mechanisms such as increasing grain size or better filling secondary tillers,” Dr March said.
For information on frost damage and what steps to take when it occurs, see the GRDC’s Back Pocket Guides, www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-BPG-FrostCereals and www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-BPG-FrostPulses. A GRDC Managing Frost Risk booklet is also available for download via www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-Booklet-ManagingFrostRisk or for purchase of a hard copy at $10 plus postage and handling from Ground Cover Direct, free phone 1800 11 00 44 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Caption: Frost remains a funding priority for the GRDC. Image Ben Biddulph
For interviews: David Shannon, GRDC Southern Regional Panel chair
Sharon Watt, Porter Novelli
GRDC Project Code
DAW00162, CSP00143, UA00114, UA00063, UA00100
South, West, National, North