Grains Research and Development

GRDC Update Papers

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This page contains papers from the GRDC Update series for both growers and advisers.

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  • New fungicides and disease management strategies for wheat and barley

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    01.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    CUR00019, FAR00002 & GRDC0004-A
    Presented At
    Presented at the Goondiwindi and Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Nick Poole
    Region
    North

    • Results with the new Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHI’s) have been very promising against a range of barley and wheat diseases including net blotches and scald in barley and in wheat yellow leaf spot and Septoria tritici blotch (STB).
    • The wet spring encouraged greater issues with wet weather stubble borne diseases such as STB and net form of net blotch which has been more widely reported in 2016.
    • The SDHI fungicides are at a moderate to high risk of pathogen resistance development so it is imperative that we don’t overuse these products and adhere to anti resistance guidelines.
    • As more evidence of fungicide resistance (or insensitivity) in triazoles emerges it emphasises the need to use fungicides as part of an Integrated Disease Management (IDM) approach that capitalises on cultivar resistance and other cultural control measures.
    • Combining two Adult Plant Resistance (APR) genes in Avocet Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) reduced the maximum yield response to stripe rust control from (significant responses) 0.98 and 0.4 t/ha where the single APR genes were used alone down to a non-significant response of 0.22 t/ha where the APR genes were combined.
    • Controlled environment studies have shown that the curative activity of fungicides such as epoxiconazole against stripe rust is approximately 7-14 days depending on the mean temperature.
    • 2016 research work shows that multiple APR genes reduce the need for fungicide applications.

  • Optimised canola profitability project

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    CSP00187, DAN00198
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update February/March 2017 by Rohan Brill
    Region
    North

    • Early sowing (early April) of canola exposes the inherent phenological differences between commercial canola varieties – choose wisely!
    • In 2016 (with the exception of the most northern site Breeza) slower developing varieties maintained relatively consistent yield across sowing dates.
    • Early sowing limited yield of fast developing varieties at both Wagga Wagga and Condobolin due to early flowering which increased exposure to fungal diseases and reduced biomass and yield potential.
    • There was a strong relationship between final biomass and grain yield
    • Certain varieties convert biomass more efficiently into grain yield (higher HI)
    • Aim to plant canola in paddocks with a high starting nitrogen availability or be prepared to feed it

  • New developments and understanding in resistance mechanisms and management

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    UA00158
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo and Goondiwindi GRDC Grains Research Updates February March 2017 by Chris Preston
    Region
    North

    • There are new weeds with resistance to paraquat, glyphosate and the Group I herbicides.
    • False negative results in resistance testing can occur due to inappropriate sampling or conditions at testing being different to those in the field.
    • Temperature affects the performance of many herbicides in Group A, Group C, as well as paraquat, glyphosate and glufosinate.
    • Understanding cross resistance patterns can help determine which herbicide products might still work.

  • Can we refine planting dates further

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    AMPS00010
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo and Goondiwindi GRDC Grains Research Updates February and March 2017 by Matt Gardner
    Region
    North

    • Of all the agronomic “levers” available to growers planting date still offers one of the greatest abilities to increase yield potential.
    • There are drastic changes in frost risk with only small changes in elevation (20-50 m), which presents significant opportunity to push planting dates forward without necessarily increasing frost risk.
    • Lower points in the landscape/paddock have more frost events with greater duration compared to higher elevations. Therefore there is slower accumulation of growing degree days at these lower points in the landscape, consequently slowing the development of the crop.
    • There is little variation in maximum temperature across elevations. Therefore in lower parts of the landscape, where the frost risk persists longer into the season, the heat stress will start at the same time as higher elevations. This narrows the window for optimum conditions for flowering crops.

  • Pros and cons of longer season varieties in Central West cropping environments

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    CSP00178
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update February/March 2017 by Neil Fettell.
    Region
    North

    • Longer season wheat varieties have the potential to give greater yields than quicker varieties, particularly when sown into high levels of stored soil moisture
    • Effective fallow weed control and stubble retention increase the chances of successful early sowing
    • The combination of variety choice and sowing date is crucial in ensuring that crops flower in the preferred window.
    • Higher yielding varieties for early sowing are being developed.

  • Heat tolerance wheat varietal differences and improved phenotyping methods

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    US00057
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update February/March 2017 by Rebecca Thistlethwaite
    Region
    North

    • Increasing temperatures will make high yielding wheat production difficult in future years.
    • High temperatures and/or ‘heat shock’ experienced during critical growth stages of anthesis and grain filling is extremely detrimental to a wheat plant.
    • There is a great need to identify genetic diversity for high temperature heat tolerance and better understand the combination of traits associated with a heat tolerant wheat type.

  • Insect pest management research update 2017

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAQ00196
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo and Goondiwindi GRDC Grains Research Updates February/March 2017 by Melina Miles
    Region
    North

    • Canola is most susceptible to yield and oil loss with infestations of aphids from bolting. This is earlier than previously thought, but still requires at least 10-14 days of infestation to significantly impact on the crop.
    • Preliminary thresholds are proposed for helicoverpa in canola.
    • Initial observations on helicoverpa feeding behaviour in faba beans suggest a crop loss rate of approx. 2.4g/larva.

  • High nitrogen fertiliser strategies on canola

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    GOA00002
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update February and March 2017 by Maurie Street
    Region
    North

    • Optimising canola performance will often require additional nitrogen (N) fertiliser
    • Optimal rates of N are often proving to be much higher than traditionally thought
    • There is little to no evidence of ‘haying off’ in canola due to excessive N
    • High N application rates in canola are not only increasing yields in the year of application but also in subsequent wheat crops
    • Growers employing more aggressive (high rate) N strategies in canola to attempt to capture higher yield opportunities in good springs can be confident that any unrealised potential of applied N will likely benefit the subsequent wheat crop.

  • Barley disease yield loss response curves

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAW00245
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo and Goondiwindi GRDC Grains Research Updates February and March 2017 by Greg Platz
    Region
    North

    • Losses in yield to a given disease epidemic vary with the levels of resistance in the varieties affected.
    • The GRDC funded project “Yield loss response curves for host resistance to leaf, crown and root diseases in wheat and barley” is gathering data on yield losses of varieties with different levels of resistance under epidemics of different severities for a range of pathogens of wheat and barley.
    • The barley foliar disease module of the project is being led by DAFQ, with experiments conducted nationally to explore the impact of leaf rust, net blotch (spot form and net form), scald and powdery mildew on current commercial barley varieties.
    • NVT disease resistance ratings categorize varieties into 9 resistance categories (R – VS). Data collected from the project will add precision to assignment of these resistance categories.
    • Growers and agronomists will be able to make better informed and more accurate decisions on disease management by implementing information gathered from the yield loss response curves project in their calculations.

  • Canola disease sclerotinia

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    28.02.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAN00177, UM0051
    Presented At
    Presented at the Dubbo GRDC Grains Research Update February and March by Kurt Lindbeck
    Region
    North

    1. Sclerotinia stem rot is a production issue where spring rainfall is adequate to provide long periods of leaf wetness in the presence of flowering canola crops.
    2. If there is a history of sclerotinia stem rot in your district causing yield loss, be prepared to use a foliar fungicide to reduce yield loss.
    3. Sclerotinia stem rot occurred in those districts with a frequent history of the disease in 2016. Wet conditions in spring were ideal for disease development.
    4. Extended periods of leaf wetness (approx. 48 hours) are ideal for triggering epidemics of stem rot.
    5. Foliar fungicides for management of the disease are best applied at 20 – 30% bloom for main stem protection.