Grains Research and Development

GRDC Update Papers

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This page contains papers from the GRDC Update series for both growers and advisers.

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  • Impacts of a wet season on crop nutrition in southern NSW

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    16.03.2017
    Presented At
    GRDC Grains Research Update in Coolamon 16 March 2017.
    Region
    North

    • Dentrification loss in soil is determined by length of saturation, soil temperature, soil
    nitrate levels and levels of labile carbon.
    • Plant available nitrate is available in soils through the process of mineralisation which is dependent on soil temperature, total soil nitrogen and soil aeration.
    • The conversion from urea to ammonium then plant available nitrate in winter is influenced by microbial activity, soil moisture and soil temperature.
    • Waterlogging restricts root development in wheat.
    • Soil testing for nitrate and ammonium (and sulphur (KCL-40) for canola) down the soil profile in 2017 is recommended.
    • Include total nitrogen % in the 0-10cm soil testing program to assist with long term crop nitrogen budgeting and annual mineralisation budgeting.
    • Don’t focus on nitrogen in 2017 to the detriment of sound agronomic planning.

  • Optimised canola profitability project (2016 results)

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    10.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    CSP00187 & DAN00198
    Presented At
    Presented at the Bellata GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Rick Graham
    Region
    North

    • Early sowing of canola exposes the inherent phenological differences between commercial canola varieties – understand your optimum flowering window, and select varieties with correct genetics to flower in this period!
    • In 2016 (with the exception of the most northern site Breeza) slower developing varieties maintained relatively consistent yield across sowing dates.
    • Early sowing of faster developing varieties increases exposure to fungal diseases and reduced biomass and yield potential.
    • There was a strong relationship between final biomass and grain yield
    • Certain varieties convert biomass more efficiently into grain yield (higher HI)
    • 2016 reinforced the need to consider adequate nitrogen so as to optimise yield potential
    • Aim to plant canola in paddocks with a high starting nitrogen availability or be prepared to feed it
    • Seed colour change (SCC) should be measured on a whole plant basis not solely the main stem, as seed development is being underestimated impacting yield and quality

  • Denitrification and managing nitrogen loss risk - key factors affecting loss

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    10.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAQ00183
    Presented At
    Presented at the Bellata GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Chris Dowling
    Region
    North

    Denitrification N loss is an unavoidable soil process during crop production in the north. Understanding the key drivers and finding practical N management options in high risk situations or following a significant N loss event is the key to ensuring the economic impact of a denitrification event is minimised.

  • High crown rot risk and should growers plant barley or wheat in northern NSW and southern Queensland

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAN00175, DAN00167
    Presented At
    Presented at the Condamine GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Steve Simpfendorfer
    Region
    North

    • In 62% of trial comparisons the barley variety Commander provided a significant yield benefit (av. 1.04 t/ha) over the bread wheat variety EGA Gregory when grow in the presence of crown rot infection.
    • In 30% of trial comparisons the effect of choosing Commander or EGA Gregory was neutral in the presence of crown rot infection.
    • In 8% of trial comparisons Commander resulted in a significant yield penalty (av. 0.48 t/ha) compared to growing EGA Gregory , likely due to stress occurring earlier in the season.
    • Barley and bread wheat varieties do vary in yield response in the presence of crown rot infection.
    • Barley is very susceptible to crown rot infection and will not reduce inoculum levels for subsequent cereal crops.

  • Variety specific agronomy package research program

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAN00167
    Presented At
    Presented at the Condamine GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Andrew Erbacher
    Region
    North

    • Targeting planting date and varieties to flower in an optimum window will maximise yield. Heat stress is more likely than frost at flowering on the Western Downs.
    • Plant populations greater than 80 plants/m2 established, have maximised yield in these trails. There is no yield penalty for exceeding this population.
    • Upfront nitrogen fertiliser application for average yield potential will be most effective in most seasons. In seasons with a wet spring, an in crop application of nitrogen will allow for the additional yield potential of the crop with the added advantage of a small protein benefit.

  • Crown rot yield loss response curves

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAW00245
    Presented At
    Presented at the Condamine GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Steve Simpfendorfer
    Region
    North

    • Response curves provide an additional tool to aid growers in varietal selection decisions to maximise returns in the presence of disease.
    • An experiment conducted near Macalister in 2015 revealed variation in the yield response of varieties to crown rot, along with their resistance to this disease.
    • The variety Suntop, although displaying crown rot symptoms similar to that of a susceptible variety, demonstrated a greater ability to maintain yield in the presence of disease than other varieties considered (tolerance).
    • The selection of varieties based purely on current resistance categories may be overlooking genetics with improved tolerance, such as the variety Suntop.

  • Fallow management of grass weeds and common sowthistle

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    NGA00004
    Presented At
    Presented at the Bellata and Condamine GRDC Grains Research Updates March 2017 by Richard Daniel
    Region
    North

    • Effective fallow management of key summer grass weeds and common sowthistle - relying on glyphosate alone - is increasingly unsustainable
    • Need to incorporate a range of other tactics including double knocks and residual herbicides to assist management
    • Knockdown options can be effective but heavily rely on preplanning and being able to target small growth stages
    • Suitable tactics will vary by weed species but in all cases there is a need to utilise as many non-chemical approaches as practical
    • Individual paddock rotations may need to change to enable use of effective residual chemistry in fallow or in-crop

  • Weed management in chickpeas

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    NGA00004; ICN00016
    Presented At
    Presented at the Condamine GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Mark Congreve
    Region
    North

    1. There are a number of key broadleaf weeds that are not effectively managed by common residual herbicide programs of isoxaflutole (e.g. Balance) in mixture with simazine or terbuthylazine (e.g. Terbyne Xtreme)
    2. No new option or mixture currently provides a consistent improvement on the current ‘unsatisfactory’ commercial approaches
    3. Management of problem broadleaf weeds remains a challenge in chickpea production
    4. Understanding soil behaviour characteristics of residual herbicides may assist in avoiding crop safety issues

  • Yellow leaf spot trials and the economics of spraying

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    09.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    DAW00245
    Presented At
    Presented at the Condamine GRDC Grains Research Updates March 2017 by Ryan Fowler.
    Region
    North

    • Crop rotation and reducing surface stubble decrease inoculum levels
    • Do not sow susceptible wheat varieties into wheat stubble
    • Economic response to fungicide application is a factor of varietal susceptibility, severity of the epidemic, product choice and timing of application.
    • Increasing moisture periods increase the incidence and severity of yellow spot

  • A simple visual lodging risk guide to assist with decision making on Plant Growth Regulators

    Research Updates

    Grains

    Article Date
    07.03.2017
    GRDC Project Code
    CSA00039
    Presented At
    Presented at the Goondiwindi GRDC Grains Research Update March 2017 by Nick Poole
    Region
    North

    • Irrigation increases crop canopy biomass and supports higher yield potential; both however put greater stress on stem strength and the anchorage of the plant in the soil, leading to increased risk of lodging.
    • Two of the biggest determinants of lodging (other than weather conditions during grain fill) in irrigated wheat crops are the cultivar lodging resistance rating and the inherent fertility (N supply) of the paddock.
    • Background N supply to the crop can be “visualised” and quantified with reference to NDVI readouts or canopy photos comparing N deficient or N Rich strips to the remainder of the paddock.
    • PGR input and N management at stem elongation represent the last opportunity to reduce lodging risk with management matched to lodging as defined by the visual appearance of the crop and knowledge of cultivar standing power under irrigation.
    • These recommendations were generated from experiments and farm monitoring on vertosol soil types in the ‘old’ northern region (Northern NSW and QLD), and caution should be taken applying them outside of these districts.