PBA Drummond - A high yielding desi chickpea variety for Central Queensland

Take home message

  • Seed available now for 2019 sowing
  • Tested across 17 CQ trials from 2013-2017
  • PBA Drummond on average across trials out yields all CQ varieties including Kyabra and PBA Pistol
  • PBA Drummond has more Ascochyta blight (AB) resistance than Kyabra and PBA Pistol
  • PBA Seamer remains the best Ascochyta blight and Phytophthora root rot (PRR) disease resistant variety
  • PBA Pistol only other central Queensland specific variety available (2012)
  • Compare varietal performance for your locality at nvtonline.com.au
  • PBA Variety Management Package (VMP) brochure for PBA Drummond is available online at the GRDC, Pulse Australia and Seednet websites

Background

Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA) is contributing to a more profitable chickpea industry by releasing more stable high yielding varieties, requiring fewer input costs and with acceptable seed quality.

Variety releases are a complete agronomic package with plant height, lodging resistance and seed size a given. Yield advantage and disease resistance coupled with acceptable maturity to bring greater profit and sustainability to the farming system.

Every year in CQ, two trial sites are sown with approximately 350+ breeding lines, one in the Dawson Callide and one in the Central Highlands. An additional two National Variety Trial (NVT) sites with 15 key entries sample additional CQ cropping areas.

PBA Drummond resulted from a cross made in 2006 between PBA HatTrick and PBA Pistol. Both these PBA bred parents were released to industry as varieties in 2012. Seven years later a genetic combination of these two varieties is now available.

A single F3, Ascochyta blight resistant, plant was selected at Tamworth and multiplied at Warwick in 2010. Seed went to Biloela in 2011 for selection and entered CQ yield trials from 2012 onwards. Pedigree seed was commenced in 2014 and 300kg delivered to the commercial partner for increase in the 2017 season.

Yield results

Overall CQ yield averages from PBA and NVT trials has shown PBA Drummond to be 7%, 8% and 10% higher yielding than PBA Pistol, Kyabra and PBA Seamer respectively. Data has been obtained from 17 trials (Biloela, Banana, Theodore, Springsure, Emerald, Capella) across 5 diverse seasons from 2013-2017.  The spread of seasonal conditions are summarised in Table 1.

Table 1. Range of field conditions at CQ trial sites 2013-2017

Trait

Range

Sowing dates

28 April to 2 June (6 week spread)

Sowing depth

Up to 5 inches deep

Row spacing

0.5m – 1m

Flowering

54-78 days (3.5 week spread)

Maturity

108-140 days (4.5 week spread)

Harvest

135-174 days (5.5 week spread)

In crop rainfall

20mm – 400+mm

Mean site yield

1.6t/ha – 3.6t/ha

Tables 2 and 3 represent the yield data by site for PBA Drummond from 2013-2017 for the Dawson Callide (DC) region and the Central Highlands (CH), respectively. In the Dawson Callide, PBA Drummond yielded anywhere from 88-121% of PBA Pistol and in the Central Highlands, from 92-123% of PBA Pistol.

Table 2. Yield of desi chickpea in the Dawson Callide from 2013-2017

Variety

Dawson Callide1

Yield as a % of PBA Pistol and in brackets, yield in t/ha

5/6/13*

28/4/14*

18/5/15*

29/4/15*

22/5/16*

29/5/17*

17/5/17*

Nearest town
Row spacing (m)

 

Biloela
1.0

Banana
1.0

Jambin
0.72

Banana
1.0

Jambin
0.72

Jambin
0.5

Theodore
0.5

PBA Drummond

107

96 (2.19)

114 (2.37)

88 (2.18)

104 (3.40)

112 (3.52)

104 (2.04)

121 (2.46)

PBA Pistol

100

100 (2.27)

100 (2.08)

100 (2.49)

100 (3.28)

100 (3.13)

100 (1.97)

100 (2.03)

Kyabra

98

89

107

106

98

98

97

104

PBA Seamer

97

91

106

105

93

105

99

115

Moti

101

108

106

91

104

101

104

PBA HatTrick

94

80

91

99

88

96

90

97

PBA Boundary

97

87

106

107

89

98

Probability, LSD (t/ha)

 

<0.001, 0.21

<0.001, 0.23

0.0579, 0.28

<0.001, 0.18

<0.001, 0.29

0.0176, 0.22

<0.001, 0.25

Source: Trial results from Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA) and National Variety Trial (NVT) programs (www.nvtonline.com.au).
* Sowing date
1 Calculated by averaging the year group from the NVT online long-term yield app for 5 Dawson Callide sites 2013–2017

Table 3. Yield of desi chickpea in the Central Highlands from 2013-2017

Yield as a % of PBA Pistol and in brackets, yield in t/ha

Variety

Central H’lands1

15/5/13*

1/6/13*

7/5/14*

8/5/14*

15/5/14*

6/5/15*

13/5/16*

25/5/16*

31/5/16*

2/6/17*

Nearest town
Row spacing (m)

 

S’sure
1.0

Emerald
1.0

Capella
1.0

S’sure
1.0

Emerald
1.0

Emerald
1.0

S’sure
0.5

Emerald
0.5

Capella
0.5

Emerald
0.5

PBA Drummond

109

104 (2.34)

123 (3.33)

113 (2.21)

107 (2.25)

101 (2.72)

101 (1.82)

114 (3.02)

92 (3.5)

108 (2.19)

100 (3.02)

PBA Pistol

100

100 (2.26)

100 (2.71)

100 (1.96)

100 (2.1)

100 (2.69)

100 (1.8)

100 (2.65)

100 (3.79)

100 (2.03)

100 (3.03)

Kyabra

100

96

110

106

110

100

94

95

97

96

96

PBA Seamer

97

97

105

99

105

101

99

94

99

95

98

Moti

101

98

108

110

103

101

100

97

100

92

PBA HatTrick

94

84

100

94

93

86

90

90

92

94

80

PBA Boundary

98

97

98

95

89

97

92

Probability, LSD (t/ha)

 

0.0517, 0.22

<0.001, 0.24

<0.001, 0.21

0.0013, 0.21

<0.001, 0.43

<0.001, 0.16

<0.001, 0.28

<0.001, 0.19

<0.001, 0.24

<0.001, 0.28

Source: Trial results from Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA) and National Variety Trial (NVT) programs (www.nvtonline.com.au).
* Sowing date
1 Calculated by averaging the year group from the NVT online long-term yield app for 11 Central Highlands sites 2013–2017

Disease results

In Table 4, data is given for Ascochyta blight (AB) and Phytophthora root rot (PRR) from yield loss trials conducted over 3 years from 2015-2017 at Tamworth and Warwick, respectively. The Ascochyta northern rating of PBA Drummond (Susceptible -S) indicates that it has better resistance than Kyabra and PBA Pistol (both Very Susceptible-VS) but not as good as PBA HatTrick (Moderately Susceptible-MS) or the best available resistance level in PBA Seamer (Moderately Resistant-MR).

In most CQ seasons, there will be no cost benefit of applying a fungicide before Ascochyta is detected. When conditions do favour Ascochyta, a reactive foliar fungicide program and protective pod sprays are warranted. Monitor the crop 10-14 days after each rain event.

PBA Drummond is rated Susceptible (S) to Botrytis grey mould (BGM) and so managing row spacing and sowing time can assist with risk levels. A registered fungicide seed dressing is highly recommended for early control of seedling root rots, seed transmitted Ascochyta and Botrytis seedling disease. Monitor for Botrytis grey mould in spring as temperatures and humidity rise. Apply a current registered fungicide once Botrytis grey mould has been identified within the crop and before full canopy closure.

Table 4. Disease ratings and yield loss trial data for CQ grown desi chickpea varieties

Variety1

Ascochyta blight (AB)2

Phytophthora root rot (PRR)5

AB Resistance rating3

Yield t/ha4

% Yield loss

PRR Resistance rating

Yield t/ha4

% Yield loss

2015

2016

2017

2015

2016

2017

2015

2015

PBA Drummond

S

0

0

0.88

100

100

53

S

0.15

95

PBA Pistol

VS

not tested

S

not tested

Kyabra

VS

0

0

0.21

100

100

89

MS

not tested

PBA Seamer

MR

1.47

1.92

1.68

24

45

7

MR

0.37

87

PBA HatTrick

MS

0.24

0.08

1.58

87

98

6

MR

0.81

68

PBA Boundary

MS

0.91

1.31

1.53

53

70

12

S

0.17

94

Source: NSW DPI and DAF Pulse pathology and PBA breeding teams
1 PBA Pistol and Moti are rated VS with similar AB yield loss as Kyabra
2 Ascochyta blight yield loss trial, Tamworth 2015, 2016 and 2017, NSW DPI
3 Northern Region AB Rating Scale
4 Yields are in the presence of high disease with no fungicide applications
5 Phytophthora root rot yield loss trial, Warwick 2015, NSW DPI and DAF

Agronomic results

Table 5 presents agronomic data across all 17 CQ trials 2013-2017; note that PBA Drummond flowers a few days later than PBA Pistol, Kyabra and PBA Seamer, but matures at approximately the same time as Kyabra and PBA Seamer.

Plant type, plant height, lowest pod height and lodging resistance are all similar to known CQ varieties. At Warwick in 2016, frost data indicated that PBA Drummond had less plant damage when compared to other varieties, a notable improvement particularly over the more susceptible parent PBA Pistol.

Table 5. Agronomic traits for CQ grown desi chickpea varieties

Variety

Flowering
(Flowering score1)

Maturity
(Maturity score1)

Plant height (cm)

(Erectness)

Lowest pod height (cm)

Lodging resistance
(Lodging score2)

Frost score3

PBA Drummond

Mid (6.7)

Early-Mid (4.7)

67.4 (E)

34.5

Good (3.3)

3.2

PBA Pistol

Early (3.5)

Early (3.5)

75.7 (E)

35.7

Good (3.5)

7.6

Kyabra

Early-Mid (5.0)

Early-Mid (4.6)

66.4 (E)

35.2

Good (4.2)

4.2

PBA Seamer

Early-Mid (5.7)

Early-Mid (4.6)

65.4 (Semi-E)

34.2

Good (3.2)

3.5

Moti

Early-Mid (–)

Early-Mid (3.9)

67.2 (E)

36.2

Good (3.0)

PBA HatTrick

Mid (6.1)

Mid (5.4)

63.2 (E)

34.1

Moderate (5.2)

PBA Boundary

Mid (6.7)

Mid (5.2)

68.4 (E)

37.2

Moderate (4.6)

Source: Pulse Breeding Australia 2013–2017
1 Flower & Maturity score: 1 = very early, 9 = very late
2 Lodging score: 1 = fully erect, 9 = flat on ground
3 Frost score (post flowering): 1=low damage, 9=high damage. Frost data collected from Warwick, SQld 2016 (DAQ00193)

Seed quality results

Table 6 gives the seed quality parameters that allow PBA Drummond entry into the bulk export market. Seed size is acceptable, closer to PBA Seamer in size than Kyabra and PBA Pistol. Seed marking percentages fell well within the acceptable range.

Table 6. Seed quality parameters for PBA Drummond relative to current varieties

Variety

Seed weight (g/100 seeds)

Tiger/blotch marking (%)

Milling performance
(%)

PBA Drummond

21.7

1.6

51.0

PBA Pistol

23.5

5.7

50.7

Kyabra

22.8

1.7

50.1

PBA Seamer

21.5

1.1

48.6

Moti

23.7

0.8

PBA HatTrick

20.7

3.6

43.8

PBA Boundary

20.1

1.3

Source: Pulse Breeding Australia.
100 Seed Weight (unsized) averaged over 15 CQ trials from 2013–2016
Seed Markings, count in 300 seeds as a %, 14 CQ trials 2013-2016 (courtesy of DAN00196)
Milling Performance % = Split Yield %, average of 2 CQ sites x 2 years (2013 and 2016)

Future

It is anticipated that PBA Drummond will replace Kyabra, PBA Pistol and PBA HatTrick which will account for approximately 90% of the CQ area sown.

Varieties to be released in the future are expected to have:

  • Yield equal to or greater than PBA Drummond
  • Ascochyta blight resistance rating at a minimum of MS
  • Large seed size similar to PBA Pistol and Kyabra
  • Maintain the agronomic features of PBA Drummond

PBA Drummond is protected under Plant Breeder’s Rights (PBR) legislation. Growers can only retain seed from their production of PBA Drummond for their own use.

An end point royalty (EPR) of $4.95 per tonne (GST inclusive), which includes breeder royalties, applies upon delivery of this variety. Seed is available from the commercial partner Seednet.

Acknowledgements

The research undertaken as part of this project is made possible by the significant contributions of growers through both trial cooperation and the support of the GRDC, the author would like to thank them for their continued support.

Local growers who partnered with PBA to provide on farm trials include the Johnstone’s from Banana, the Conway’s from Theodore and Peter Lablack from Capella. Support from the Qld DAF NVT team is also acknowledged with their data contributing to the yield analyses.

Contact details

Dr Merrill Ryan
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
Hermitage Research Facility, Yangan Road
Warwick QLD 4370
Ph: 07 4542 6710
Email: merrill.ryan@daf.qld.gov.au

Varieties displaying this symbol are protected under the Plant Breeders Right Act 1994

GRDC code: DAN00212

GRDC Project code: DAN00212