Second-chance mungbeans reward persistence
GroundCover™ Issue: 123 | Author: Melissa Marino
Grower Wade Bidstrup realised the true potential of mungbeans after treating them as a ‘real’ crop and applying specific research-based agronomy
Wade Bidstrup’s first experience growing mungbeans was not a good one. Sowing the seed directly into that season’s wheat stubbles and with little moisture to draw on, they yielded 0.2 tonnes per hectare. “It was a disaster,” he says. “I swore I would never grow them again.”
But that was 10 years ago and since then intelligence around mungbean agronomy has grown, along with their market value and the development of superior varieties, to make the pulse a far more attractive option.
So much so that these days at Wade’s Warra property on the Darling Downs, in Queensland, mungbeans are a mainstay of his rotation and represent the majority of his summer cropping regime. This season he will harvest 310ha of mungbeans, along with 60ha of sorghum and 40ha of maize.
“If you grow them properly they are a really profitable crop,” he says. “In fact, mungbeans are our main summer crop now.”
Mungbeans are a great asset to his enterprise, he says, with high prices providing a reliable income stream and flexible sowing times spreading risk. On top of that, they leave the paddock in good shape for winter crops, helping to control weeds while adding organic matter through a shallow root system that does not remove too much moisture. The only downside, he says, is that mungbeans produce minimal stubble and therefore minimal ground cover.
Wade reintroduced mungbeans seven years ago after witnessing a friend’s success with the crop. And second time around he took a more considered approach. “I started treating them like a ‘real’ crop,” he says. “And I’ve never looked back.”
As a mark of his respect for the crop, Wade became involved with mungbean research. This year, for the third consecutive year, he is hosting a series of Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI) agronomy trials, led by Dr RCN Rachaputi. These trials, he says, have helped establish best practice for mungbean row spacing and seeding rates.
Trials of mungbeans sown with 250-millimetre, 500mm, 750mm and one-metre row spacings showed that narrower row widths resulted in higher yields. For Wade, the trials confirmed he was on the right track with the 500mm row spacings he had used since reinstating mungbeans into his system.
“We always thought the narrower row width was better,” he says. “The plants have a bit more space to capture more sunlight, so it just stood to reason for us.”
Wade says that while narrower rows may cost more in new equipment for growers commonly growing mungbeans on 1m rows, in line with other crops such as sorghum, cotton and maize, the outlay is worth it. “It’s a big expense setting up your planter differently, but if you can achieve a 20 per cent yield increase through narrower rows, that’s a big jump in profits,” he says.
The Bidstrup property has also been hosting plant population trials led by Dr Rachaputi, investigating optimal rates for maximum pod production and corresponding yield gains. Seeding rates in the region can range from 150,000 to 400,000 seeds/ha. If this number is too high, Wade says, the plants “choke each other out of sunlight and moisture” and if it is too low they will grow excess foliage and not enough pods.
“It’s a balancing act,” he says. “You can go too thick and you can go too thin – we’ve found what the right number is and that it’s different for different varieties.”
The trials on his property, he says, indicate peak yields for Crystal occur with a rate of about 240,000 seeds/ha, while for Jade-AU, 280,000 seeds/ha produce the highest yields. Wade has taken this advice on board, increasing his seeding rate and seeing yields up to 2.5t/ha.
“If you grow them with the right seeding rates, row spacing and on long fallow you’ll get the high-yielding 1.7 to 2.5t/ha crops,” he says. “But when you grow them on short fallow or double-crop them into wheat or barley, that’s when you’ll get the 0.5t/ha crop and that’s when people decide never to grow them again.”
Wade has no regrets about giving mungbeans a second chance. He says the major step-change for his own fortunes came when he started treating them with respect, with specific agronomy and paddock preparation, rather than as a second thought.
“They yield really well and even if it’s dry over summer they hang in there and get a respectable yield. With the price of them lately, it’s a lot more profitable than any other crop you could grow in summer,” he says.
Growers and marketers have been able to capitalise on the increased price of mungbeans – fuelled by the growing middle class in Asia, and specifically India – up to a consistent figure of about $1300/t by reliably providing a high-quality product.
This, Wade says, is thanks to Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation breeding research – some undertaken on his property – which has produced varieties that are higher yielding than the “pretty ordinary” varieties of the past and more resilient against variable weather and lodging.
Meanwhile the QAAFI trials, funded by the GRDC, will continue this season at his property. These will look at row spacing and seeding rate, as well as the role of mungbeans in fixing nitrogen in the soil according to those widths and rates.
Rolling out the trials over several seasons ensures results are tested under a range of conditions, Wade says, adding to the growing bank of knowledge about the crop.
What he knows already is that mungbeans will continue to play a big role in his system – providing the price stays right. “You just can’t beat them with anything else,” he says. “They are very compelling to grow.”
More information:Wade Bidstrup,
0428 681 118,
GRDC Project Code UQ00067