The good news on nematode resistance by Mike Perry

The new Sloop is designed for CCN management and boron toxicity situations.

WHAT DEFINES a SloopPBR logo? Growers may well ask, as Sloop malting barley is joined by its new siblings Sloop SAPBR logo and Sloop VicPBR logo.

The short answer is that the new varieties are the first CCN-resistant malting barleys, but to perceptive growers they are an opportunity to change their rotations and systems for greater profit. (The two varieties have different agronomic traits suited to different environments — see table. )

CCN (cereal cyst nematode) has been one of the most widespread, insidious and damaging root diseases of cereals in south-eastern Australia. As well as reducing yield, the disease has restricted grower options because many high-value wheats (including durum) as well as malting barley have been susceptible to CCN.

The highly resistant Sloop SAPBR logo and Sloop VicPBR logo should boost malting barley production and help 'tighten the noose' that good rotation and variety choice have already put around the neck of that yield thief —CCN.

CCN-proofing farms in SA

Maurice and Mary Geister and son Stephen see Sloop SAPBR logo as the next step in their campaign to nullify the effects of CCN on their property 'Westropa', 30 km north of Kapunda in South Australia's Mid-North. From a decade ago when CCN was 'everywhere', according to Mr Geister, the family have introduced canola and lupins to the rotation to break the disease cycle, and replaced their CCN-susceptible Halberd and Spear wheat with the resistant variety Frame.

The Geisters purchased Sloop SAPBR logo seed this year and hope to reap a 2-2. 5 t/ha crop. SloopPBR logo has been their mainstay variety since it replaced Schooner mainly due to high head loss of the latter variety. "By helping us reduce CCN even further, Sloop SAPBR logo will protect our durum enterprise (Durum varieties are moderately intolerant to CCN — Ed), give us more options to try some of the newer wheat varieties and perhaps make a few more dollars, " Mr Geister said.

On Yorke Peninsula, the toughness of Sloop SAPBR logo in 2002 has shown through for Kyle Holman. There has been only 7 inches (175 mm) growing season rainfall at 'Martinella', 8 km south of Paskerville on the northern Yorke Peninsula, yet Mr Holman is delivering 1. 5 t/ha from his SloopPBR logo crop and 2 t/ha from Sloop SAPBR logo "Taller, stands better, and lower screenings" was Mr Holman's comment. "No more Barque or SloopPBR logo for us. "

Sloop VicPBR logo gets through the drought

In Victoria, the drought has ravaged the 2002 Sloop VicPBR logo seed crops. More fortunate growers are Graeme and Tracy Beddison of 'Weeroona' on the Kalkee plain, 20 km north of Horsham. "Probably our worst year ever, " said Mr Beddison,

"But we are luckier than most and should harvest 0. 8 t/ha from our Sloop VicPBR logo seed crop. We put the crop on a green fallow (vetch incorporated with an offset disc in spring 2001) and perhaps that has helped a little. "

'Weeroona' is all crop and the Beddisons need more cereal to extend the rotation between their lentil, chickpea and fenugreek crops. "Barley has been our mainstay cereal — we liked Schooner, but the head loss got us in the end and Arapiles has not performed. We now have GairdnerPBR logo and are getting excellent results — high yields and plump grain, but it is CCN-susceptible and Sloop VicPBR logo will be our insurance, " Mr Beddison said.

At Brim in the 'mallee fringe country' of the northern Wimmera, Max Golder is ecstatic about the performance of Sloop VicPBR logo on his high boron clay-loam soils. "We discovered our boron problem through grain analysis of TOPCROP trials some years ago and have grown Frame and YitpiPBR logo for boron and CCN, " Mr Golder said.

"We jumped at the chance to try Sloop VicPBR logo in 2001 and reckon it gave us up to 25 per cent yield advantage compared to SloopPBR logo. " With no crop this year, Mr Golder is looking forward to repeating that experience in 2003.

previously CCN resistance was available only in feed varieties

Be patient for pay-off next season

Both Sloop VicPBR logo and Sloop SAPBR logo are 'back-cross' lines, adding the CCN-resistance trait to the parent SloopPBR logo while keeping its good adaptation and malting quality. VIDA's barley breeder and the breeder of Sloop VicPBR logo, David Moody, said: "previously CCN resistance was available only in feed barley varieties like Chebec, Barque, Galleon and KeelPBR logo; now, for the first time, we have two CCN-resistant malting barley lines".

growers benefit from lower CCN in second year —'resistance' stops CCN multiplying in the roots

Mr Moody's advice to growers is not to expect big yield increases from the new varieties on CCN-infested paddocks because their 'tolerance' to CCN already present in the soil is unchanged. "But growers benefit through lower CCN in the following year because the 'resistance' stops CCN multiplying in the roots, " Mr Moody said.

If 2002 is a year to forget for most growers, 2001 was one of those seasons that everyone wishes would come around again. At 'Oaklands', 1 km west of Kaniva and 25 km from the South Australian border, Malcolm and Diane Eastwood grew Sloop VicPBR logo in a 2001 malting trial. Mr Eastwood acknowledges it was an exceptional season, but "210 tonnes off 47 hectares" (4. 47 t/ha) is no mean yield.

Mr Eastwood's Sloop VicPBR logo was grown next to a GairdnerPBR logo malting barley crop. "We were asked to sow the Sloop VicPBR logo at a heavy rate (80 kg/ha) and, compared to GairdnerPBR logo which grew like a weed, Sloop VicPBR logo was vigorous, had good colour, was upright and a good height, " said Mr Eastwood. In the end GairdnerPBR logo outyielded Sloop VicPBR logo, but Mr Eastwood admits the season was ideal for the later-maturing variety. Once again the Sloop VicPBR logo presents possible insurance for the CCN prone GairdnerPBR logo.

Harvestability is very important to Mr Eastwood and Sloop VicPBR logo performed similarly to Schooner and Arapiles. "It's not a crop to sit around while you do other things, " he said. "It's not a patch on GairdnerPBR logo with its excellent straw strength and head retention. "

Adds flexibility to rotations

As committed barley growers, how do the Eastwoods see the future for Sloop VicPBR logo? "We traditionally grew only wheat and barley. CCN forced us into growing canola and legumes including beans and lentils, but now we are having problems controlling volunteer vetch and bedstraw in the 1: 1 cereal-broadleaf rotation".

"We see Sloop VicPBR logo working for us by allowing us to move to a 2:1 cereal-broadleaf rotation and still keeping the pressure on CCN, " Mr Eastwood said.

Varieties? Mr Eastwood sees it this way — "We liked Schooner as a consistent yielder, but the head loss was bad. Arapiles was no better and the high screenings in drier years and the 'harvest itch' sent us back to Schooner, " Mr Eastwood said. "Now with GairdnerPBR logo looking excellent on our better soils and Sloop VicPBR logo for CCN management and our boron toxicity situations, we may have the varieties we have been waiting for. "

To put it in a nutshell: the choice is not Sloop VicPBR logoor Sloop SAPBR logo. The choice is for profitable and flexible rotations using Sloop VicPBR logoand Sloop SAPBR logo — see table for characteristics.

Sloop SAPBR logo and Sloop VicPBR logo are protected under the Plant Breeder's Rights Act 1994 and unauthorised sale of seed of the varieties may be an infringement of the Act. Graintrust Pty Ltd has been licensed by the breeders of Sloop VicPBR logo and Sloop SAPBR logo to produce and market seed and seed of both varieties is available through local retailers in SA and Victoria. An end-point licence fee of $1. 70 per tonne is applicable to all production of these varieties.

Program 1 Contact:
Mr Maurice Geister 08 8581 1452
Mr Kyle Holman 08 8827 2153
Mr Graeme Beddison 03 5384 2201
Mr Malcolm Eastwood 03 5392 2612
Mr Max Golder 03 5390 0206
Mr David Moody 03 5362 2111

Comparison of CCN resistant barleys — Schooner, SloopPBR logo , Sloop VicPBR logo, Sloop SAPBR logo

SchoonerSloopPBR logoSloop VicPBR logoSloop SAPBR logo
AdaptationWidely adapted varietyWidely adapted varietyLater maturity may compromise yield in low-rainfall areas and years. Suitable for heavy soils in the southern and central Mallee and northern Wimmera.Earlier maturity may favour lighter soils and/or lower rainfall areas/years where early maturity is important.
FloweringMid-season varietyMid-season varietyLater (SloopPBR logo +4 days)Slightly earlier (SloopPBR logo -1 day)
Yield¹About 5% higher yielding than SchoonerSimilar to SloopPBR logo in Vic, slightly less in SASmall improvement on SloopPBR logo
Straw strengthModerateModerateModerateModerate
Head retentionModerate to high head lossMuch improved head retention relative to SchoonerEqual to or slightly worse than SloopPBR logoWorse than SloopPBR logo similar to Schooner
Foliar diseaseLacks leaf-resistanceSimilar to SloopPBR logo, but resistant to powdery mildewSimilar to SloopPBR logo
CCN resistance²SusceptibleSusceptibleResistantResistant
Boron toleranceSusceptibleSusceptibleTolerant Up to 10% yield advantage over SloopPBR logo on boron toxic sites in Victoria.Susceptible Has yielded well on boron toxic soils in SA probably linked to its earlier maturity.
Grain sizeExcellent grain sizeExcellent grain sizeExcellent grain size
Malting qualityModerate only, lacks diastatic power.Good. Major improvement on SchoonerSimilar to SloopPBR logoSimilar to SloopPBR logo
MBQIP rating⁴(solid/liquid)3.5/4.55.5/6.05.9/5.35.3/5.3
Cultural notesWindrowing recommendedWindrowing recommended
Potential replacement for:Schooner, SloopPBR logo, ChebecSchooner, SloopPBR logoChebec, KeelPBR logo,Barque, Galleon.

¹ Yield will be influenced by multiple factors including maturity, presence of boron and other undefined factors. For example, Sloop SAPBR logo has shown a significant yield advantage over Schooner, SloopPBR logo and Sloop VicPBR logo even on boron toxic soils in tough seasons like 1999 and 2002 in SA. This may be due to its earlier maturity. Current indications are that Sloop VicPBR logo may have a long-term yield advantage where annual average rainfall exceeds about 350 mm, but Sloop SAPBR logo may be favoured where rainfall is lower or where soil conditions favour early maturity. Growers should seek competent local advice.

² Ability to stop multiplication of CCN in the root — reduces CCN numbers in the following year.

³ Ability to yield even when infected with CCN.

⁴ Higher figure on 0-9 scale indicates improved malting quality